An Unusual Thing About My Peerless Faucet Aerator

Featured Image at the Top of the Page is “Similar” to the Peerless Faucet we use, our Handles, and the Aerator Housing, are Different.

Aerator from my Peerless Bathroom Faucet. 

Image 1 Reduced

We moved in this house, had some work done, and one of the jobs was replacing the Faucet. We chose Peerless, ours has a moderately high spout, permitting the Humidifier Tank to be placed in the Sink, with the Spout Swung to the side, then swung back again over the Humidifier Tank Opening to Fill.

Modern Faucets are generally Water Conserving. I assumed it was done by controlling the size of the orifice in the Hot and Cold Water Valves. We also use a Brita Pitcher in the Bathroom to remove the Chlorine and other chemicals and solids from the water. It’s Black (the tank on the top of the Brita Pitcher, the sides of the Pitcher itself are clear), yet one day, while filling it, I noticed what seemed to be a Silver Fish flow from the Spout into the Water Tank. Actually it was a strip of mold, and this is even more a concern. I took the Aerator apart, and lo and behold, the end was somewhat moldy. This began my at least monthly disassembly and cleaning of the Aerator.

Image 2 Reduced

Image 3 Reduced

Though I never found mold build-up after the first time, after all it was being inspected and partially cleaned every month, I did notice an O-Ring that seemed to have no use. As time passed, the water seemed to be running slower and slower. It seemed to get bad quickly at one point, and I thought the Water Company was using less pressure, but I noticed the Bath Tub Faucet wasn’t affected. So, curiosity got the best of me, I disassembled the Aerator, found that seemingly redundant O-Ring, removed it, and Voila, the water pressure and flow have massively increased.

The O-Ring sits in a depression, with tiny holes below it, but is held away from the holes by a series of symmetrical ridges that hold the O-Ring away from the Holes. What has happened is the O-Ring has been forced down over the ridges, eventually taking on the shape (cupping), and by doing so, more completely closes off the Water’s access to the tiny holes. You can see the O-Ring (I didn’t get a good photo of the situation I describe, but it’s clear when looking directly at the O-Ring) appears jagged around its surface on one side.

Image 4 Reduced

I have left the Flow Restricting O-Ring out, now my multi-blade razors can actually be cleared by water pressure and not using my tooth brush. And the toothpaste can be washed from the toothbrush. It now only takes 15 seconds to get Hot Water, rather than over 30.

Image 5 Reduced

Remember, the Flow Restrictor Saves Water, and by doing so, saves money, so if you use the Aerator without the Restrictor, make a conscious effort to keep the Flow Minimized and only as much as needed for the application. It took me forever to try and rinse Multi-Blade Razors after shaving, and much less time with the Flow Restrictor Removed, but don’t let the water run while shaving, or run it at a Reduced Rate, since much more water is used.

Image 6 Reduced

Of course, the O-Ring can be replaced, restoring the Correct Function of the Flow Restrictor. You can likely buy a New Aerator, but Male or Female Threads, and the Diameter of the Spout or Aerator Opening/Threads may need to be known. It’s probably simple to obtain and replace the Aerator on some Faucets, not so much on others.

Short Article. (see Following Link) Laminar Flow does not pull in air. Pathogens and Microbes Exist in the Air. A standard Aerator will pull in Contaminated Air and mix it into the water. So, Medical Facilities use Laminar Flow Faucet Outlets and not standard Aerators.

Faucet Outlets: Aerators vs Laminar-Flow

Laminar versus Turbulent Flow through a Kitchen Faucet

Danze Laminar Flow Aerator from eFaucets 

How to Clean a CLOGGED Faucet Aerator – WITHOUT TOOLS

Flashlight School, a Transcription:

The Video; Things you need to know before buying a Flashlight – The importance of Lumens, Lux, and Candela; which Follows, and is Interesting to Watch, has arduously been Transcribed by me, so that one can reflect on the Items Mentioned.

Please bear in Mind that many Flashlights are not Toys, and Careless Use can result in Human and Animal Eye Damage from Flashlights and Headlamps with High Outputs and some that may have a lower output, relatively speaking. I had looked at a certain Model LED Headlamp, at a Close Distance, when it unexpectedly came on, and had a Green Circle in my Retina for hours afterwards, and this Headlamp was not by any means known as really bright. LEDs have a Phenomenon known as Point Source, the Intense LED Light is produced at an Electrical Junction, a very Tiny Point, rather than being Distributed Over an Incandescent Filament, this Intense Point of Light can Cause Harm from a variety of LED Products.

The Ultraviolet Flashlight I describe below, this is not a Toy, this is Insanely Bright for a U.V. Light and I would imagine Damage to Human and Animal Eyes could occur with Careless Use.

Effects of White Light‐Emitting Diode (LED) exposure on Retinal Pigment Epithelium 

High Output Flashlights Can Start Fires. Use Care in Use and in Delegating Responsibility to whom is permitted to use them.  Crazy Russian Hacker (a YouTube Channel) offers some significant cautions about High Power Flashlights that are missing in the otherwise excellent show I transcribed.

Flashlight Fire Starter

Can You Start a Fire With LED Flashlight?

Things you need to know before buying a Flashlight – The importance of Lumens, Lux, and Candela

Luminous Flux measured in Lumens is the Total Light Output of a Light, often listed first in Specifications of a Flashlight.

The Reflector, and sometimes a Lens, Focuses and Directs the Light in a certain way, such as a Flood Light or a Beam. This relates to the Intensity of the Light, Intensity in a Particular Direction is referred to as Luminous Intensity, and is measured in Candela aka Candle Power.

Below is an Additional Definition of the Word, such Additions and Comments that were not in the Original Video will be Contained Within Horizontal Lines. 

National Institute of Standards and Technology – NIST
Candela – Latin Word for Candle

The candela is the SI’s base unit for photometry—the science of measuring light as perceived by the human visual system. It is as notable for what it does not do as for what it does: It does not represent the entire amount of light shining from an object; we have a different unit called the lumen for that. It is not used for every kind of electromagnetic radiation; radio waves, X-rays and other types of light our eyes cannot detect are measured in watts of power. The candela is particular. It measures light we can see, coming directly from a source we can see, straight into our eyes. 

You can have a Lower Power Flashlight, i.e. Less Lumens, which can have Higher Intensity than a Higher Power Flashlight when Direction is considered.

Analogy of Hose with Adjustable Nozzle, same pressure can cover a large area with spray head, or be concentrated into narrow jet to project much further. In other words, a Flood vs Beam light. This is where the Range, i.e. Light Throw, is considered.

Candela Rating is Better than Lumen for a Spotlight or Long Range Light. These (Spotlight and Long Range Lights) are generally best served by a Single LED and Bigger Reflector than Multi-LEDs or Smaller Reflector that are often used for Floodlighting.

LUX is the Amount of Light Hitting a Surface, and that’s Measured with a Light Meter. ANSI FL1 Standard States that the Maximum Range of a Light is a Measure of the Distance from the Light when the Surface Light Level Drops to .25 of a Lux, which is a very low light level, similar to Moonlight.

Lux is a unit of illumination equal to the direct illumination on a surface that is everywhere one meter from a uniform point source of one candle intensity or equal to one lumen per square meter

Flashlight with Range of 500 Meters, don’t expect to spot a black cat at that range with Moon Level Brightness. The Light then must travel back to the eye, and Moisture and Dust will obscure some of it, so some people feel an actual effective range is 1/4 of the stated value. A 500 Meter Light would more realistically be most useful at 125 Meters.

Perception of light is non-linear, and that also influences Flashlight Choice. A Flashlight with Double the Output does not appear Twice as Bright. For a Flashlight to be Twice as Bright it needs to be 4X the Intensity. Buying a Flashlight with a Few More Lumens will not seem to be Significantly Brighter. Rather, Consider Run Time, Candela Rating, Beam Pattern, ease of Operation, etc.

Run Time is also Addressed in ANSI FL1 Standard as the Time Beginning 30 Seconds after the Light is Switched-on Until the Output Reaches 10% of the Original Measurements. Though older technologies showed a Steady Decrease in Brightness Over Time, newer technologies Maintain a Constant Brightness Over Time Except in Very High Brightness Modes, often referred to as Turbo. With these; in the Turbo Mode; the Intensity Drops after a relatively short period of time. This may be due to Circuits Designed to Protect the Flashlight Electronics from Overheating as this can happen at High Brightness Levels. Though the Flashlight may permit the Turbo Mode to be re-engaged once the Flashlight has cooled below a Certain Level, repeated engagements of Turbo Mode will shorten the overall Run Time.

He offered examples of Turbo Mode vs Length of Time until it drops to a Lower Output, and the model he showed also had Time Limits on the Brightness Mode that was the next Step below Turbo.

  • 25,000 Lumens for 70 Seconds Drops to 4,000 Lumens for 1 Hr. 20 Min.
  • 9,000 Lumens for 2 Min. Drops to 4,000 Lumens for 1 Hr. 30 Min.
  • 4,000 Lumens for 2 Hr. 18 Min.
  • 2,500 Lumens for 4 Hr.
  • 1,200 Lumens for 8 Hr.
  • 200 Lumens for 31 Hr.

He also offered examples of the Environment determining the length of time that a Flashlight can Operate in Turbo Mode or High Brightness Modes, saying use in the Arctic may have longer times before the Intensity Drops than Operating it in a Hot Climate, like the Amazon.

In my Opinion, Timers are Less Expensive than Thermostat Measuring Circuits, and it’s likely that at least some will only operate for a Specific Time in Turbo or High Brightness Modes Regardless of the Ambient Temperatures.

I think on Many Flashlights and Headlamps with Regulated Voltage provided to the LED maintain a Constant Brightness until the Available Voltage Drops Below a specific point. Not all are Regulated.

Form Factor will make a Difference in Selection. Do you want a Compact Light, a Hands Free Headlamp, a Spotlight, a Powerful Flood Light, or something Really Compact that will fit in your Pocket for Every Day Carry (EDC). Another Feature is do you want a Firefly (Moonlight) Mode. This Mode is used to not Interfere with others around you, or to use the Light without Recharging (as a Night Light) that can go Weeks if not Months without Recharging the Battery.

With the Exception of some Tactical Lights that have a very Firm Tail Switch to Operate, many Flashlights have a Lock-out Mode to Prevent it from Being Switched on as it is in Storage (Luggage or Backpack) and is being Knocked About. He then suggests if that mode Doesn’t Exist, to Unscrew the Tail End of the Light somewhat to Disable the Flashlight.

I’d suggest storage that prevents movement in such a way that makes an Accidental Switching-on Impossible, such as a Case Designed by the Manufacturer. Crazy Russian Hacker Suggests, in one of the Videos Above, to Replace the Insulator in one model Flashlight he has, while in Storage, to prevent the Light from coming on. He also shows Fires that can be Started by High Intensity Flashlights (and probably some not so High in Intensity as well). 

  • Some Tactical Flashlights have a Strobe Function to Disorientate an Attacker and may be useful.
  • Some Flashlights have a Strobe Beacon, Flashes a Periodic Intense Burst of Light used to Attract Attention.
  • Some Flashlights have an SOS Mode that Flashes SOS in Morse Code, he doesn’t appear to see the benefit of this for most users.
  • Some Flashlights, particularly Headlamps have a Red LED Mode, that works at Different Intensities, and that will operate in Flash Mode. Useful for Moving Around at Night to Preserve your Eyes being Adapted to the Dark, or as a Safety Aid.

Lights may Specify Warm Light or Cool Light, and that relates to the Color Temperature of the Light, Measured in Kelvin. Lights specified near the 4000 Kelvin Range are Warm Colored (More Orange), Lights Specified near 6000 Kelvin are Regarded as a Cooler Light, Blue Light, or Natural Daylight.

He Talks about the Different Light Levels that Flashlights Have, and the use of the Light Switch to Step Through the Various Light Levels.

IPX Rating is How Protected the Flashlight is Against Water Ingress.

  • IPX4 is Splash Proof
  • IPX5 is Water Resistant Against Low Pressure Jets
  • IPX6 is Water Resistant Against High Pressure Jets
  • Everything IPX7 and Above is Classified as Water Proof. IPX7 Can be Submerged to 1 Meter for 30 Minutes
  • IPX8 Can be Submerged to 2 Meters for 30 Minutes.

IP Rating, rather than IPX, Provides Numbers such as IP68. In his Example, the 6 Stands for Dust Proof Abilities, and the 8 Pertains to Water Proof as already described in the IPX Paragraph. He stated that Generally the Water Resistant or Water Proof Abilities are usually the only one stated since if it’s Water Resistant or Water Proof, it’s Dust Proof as well.

Impact Resistance is quoted as a Drop Distance onto Cured Concrete from a specified Distance 6 Times in succession at Different Angles that generally Match the Sides of a Cube, without the Flashlight having Suffered Material Damage or Loss of Function.

  • Rechargeable Batteries have Higher Power Densities than Disposable Batteries, so usually offer more Power for a Longer Period of Time, the Drawback Being that Replacement Batteries are not Conveniently Available in Local Stores if you unexpectedly run out of power, and that is assuming that there are shops around.
  • Bigger Batteries Generally give Longer Run Times, most are usually Lithium Ion but some are Lithium Polymer, though the Polymer are Generally in Flashlights that do not have Replaceable Flashlights.
  • USB-C Charging is Preferable to Micro USB, they are More Reliable, Charge More Quickly, and Correctly Orienting the Plug is not needed.
  • Some Batteries have the Charging Socket Built into the Battery, it’s beneficial since if the Connection becomes Faulty on the Device End, you simply Replace the Battery to Restore the Connection, not the Flashlight, and the Connection is Protected by being Inside the Flashlight and is Less Prone to Water and Dust Ingress.
  • Socket on the Flashlight is More Convenient, Simply Plug in the Charger without Removing the Battery, and in Some Cases, the Flashlights can be Hooked into a Power Back and Used while they are Charging.
  • Some Batteries or Flashlights use a Connector, some have Magnetic Mated Charger Connectors, but can be an issue if the Special Connector becomes Lost or Broken. He prefers Standard USB Connectors as he normally has them anyway.
  • Most Manufacturers don’t supply a Charger, because most people have them to begin with, but the Manufacturer supplies a Charging Lead.

The above is the Transcription of the Show, I have endeavored to keep it accurate but it is, at times, not verbatim. In addition, I cannot fully attest to the topics he addressed, but they seem to be what I would expect.

He Didn’t seem to Mention that Specialized Flashlights are Available. I have an Ultraviolet Flashlight, for Example. Another has U.V. and Green LED’s in addition to White.


In the Photographs Below, the Red Dot in the Upper Right Corner of the Lower 4 Images (Left and Right) is a Laser Pointer used to be sure the Areas I Photographed without and with the U.V. Light were Identical.


In Articles on Flashlights, it’s not Uncommon to see the Terms Spot and Spill. From the Transcription, if I correctly understand, Flood Lights may not have much noticeable difference between the two, but Spotlights would seem likely to Create a Bright Spot and have a duller Spill Area.

Spot and Spill

More of My Blogs on Flashlights:

Christmas 2022 Gift Suggestions, Flashlights, the Perfect Gift!

Christmas 2022 Gift Suggestions, Flashlights, the Perfect Gift!

Bright Flashlights, Spotlight, Particles in Air, and Masks.

Bright Flashlights, Spotlight, Particles in Air, and Masks.

My Headlamp Collection and Warning on Possible Retinal Damage That May Occur from Some LED Products

My Headlamp Collection and Warning on Possible Retinal Damage That May Occur from Some LED Products

Coleman 2D Boosterbeam and Streamlight LED Explosion Proof Flashlight

Coleman 2D Boosterbeam and Streamlight LED Explosion Proof Flashlight

LED Lighting Can Cause Retinal Damage

LED Lighting Can Cause Retinal Damage

Ultraviolet Light and the Things You’d Rather Not See!

Ultraviolet Light and the Things You’d Rather Not See!

Candle Use to Provide Warmth During Power Outages

Open Flames, (Including Oil Lamps) and Electric Heaters, are a common cause of home fires, when not used properly, or for Electric Heaters used in homes with wiring not up to the task.

This Blog entry intends to provide links to topics many may not have considered; byproducts of Candle Combustion; and to link to sites I’ve dealt with, Kirkman, for example. When I saw a Narrow Boat Video on YouTube, where the person posting the video, said he bought an Aladdin Oil Lamp for heat and light. I noticed it was too close to the ceiling (on a Wall Bracket) and emailed Kirkman, he said at least 18″ of clearance “at minimum” was needed. I contacted the YouTube channel to tell him about my concern.

My son was at a party, in a Trailer, that was destroyed by fire after everyone was safely evacuated.  A candle, “out of sight, out of mind”, purportedly caught the ceiling on fire, it was on a shelf, very close to the ceiling.

I have a UCO Candlelier, (see Featured Image at top of page) it comes in a few colors, my model has 3 Candles, all three can be kept in place, and 1, 2, or 3 candles lit. They also sell a Single Candle unit, more compact.

UCO Candlelier Deluxe Candle Lantern

I have a multitude of Oil Lamps, several Rayo Oil Lamps (Historic, Designed by an Oil Company, consumes Kerosene like an Oil Lamp designed by an Oil Company) uses a Center Draft, Flame Spreader, and Flat Wick shaped into a Circular Form.

Rayo Oil Lamp

Rayo Oil Lamp Above 

Aladdin Oil Lamps (still in production), Side Draft (but comes up in the center), Flame Spreader, Circular Wick, and Mantle. They use considerably less Kerosene than the Rayo, are much Brighter due to the Mantle, and put out a good amount of heat.

Aladdin Oil Lamp

Aladdin Oil Lamp Above

For the Rayo, Aladdin, and Gaudard (see below) we use regular clear kerosene, you must get from a reliable place, we had some once that stunk-up the house, we stopped using it, I complained so much the store manager refunded my money, and I had 5 Gallons of Kerosene to dispose of. Usually, with Good Kerosene and the proper flame height, they do not smell at all, until they are extinguished, so I often take mine outside to extinguish them.

The Rayo Oil Lamps, Aladdin Oil Lamps, and Gaudard, can “run away” if not carefully monitored after lighting for about 15 minutes, Flame can be coming out the Chimney if they run away, just turn them down. Too high of a In-use Flame on the Aladdin soots-up the Mantle, turning the flame down to the correct level burns off the soot, but also is prone to break Mantle threads as it does so, it’s best to be vigilant and prevent soot from building up at all.

The Gaudard Oil Lamps are a Side Draft, Flat Wick formed into a Circular Form, and some have a Flame Spreader. The same points apply to Gaudard as Rayo and Aladdin except concerning the Mantle, it doesn’t use that, and, there are Special Chimneys to be used on the Gaudard Burner with a Flame Spreader, and a Special Chimney to be used on the Gaudard without the Flame Spreader. Using other chimneys with Gaudard Lamps may result in unsatisfactory performance.

Gaudard Oil Lamp 2

Gaudard Oil Lamp Above
The Pattern Seen in the Chimney is in the Background

I have conventional Oil Lamps, a few antiques, and I have probably 7 Dietz Hurricane Style Lamps (still in production). The Dietz Hurricane Oil Lamp supposedly self extinguishes if knocked over. I’m not sure of the Candlelier, but the Candlelier is contained. Regular Oil Lamps; Table Top, Hurricane; other than Rayo, Aladdin, or Gaudard, Produce more Odor in use. I have a RR Signaling Kerosene Lamp, and a Kerosene Headlight (for a buggy) Lamp as well.

Probably the best authority on Oil Lamps

WT Kirkman:

In Ohio, Lehman’s sell much to Amish. The new Rayo Lamps they are selling ARE NOT the Rayo Lamps I mentioned above.


Candles were a more recent interest. One interesting post, with recent power outages, was this:

How To Build A Clay Pot Candle Heater and Do They Really Work?

But I wondered about the Combustion Byproducts of Candles, (I’m not suggesting it’s worse than Oil Lamps, just that I never considered it before) here’s what I’ve found:

Chemistry of the Christmas Candle — Part 1

Chemistry of the Christmas Candle — Part 2

Chemistry of the Christmas Candle — Part 3

Candles, combustion, and waxes

The Science of Candles

Use Candles and Oil Lamps Carefully and Responsibly 

Heaters, Meters, and More

I think there is a chance, a good chance, that recent additional Electric Heater use is inadvertently causing additional fires. As an Industrial Electrician, I would see Receptacles Burned-Up by Heater Use, in fact, the Facility was periodically inspected (Loss Prevention and Control), and it was determined by the Corporation that Conventional Heaters would not be permitted (of course no one enforced it) and Suggested a Model that was lower risk (not discussed here, and that the facility would not pay for).

Just before I wrote this, our lights were Flashing. The last few days, we’ve seen that several times. Listening to the Police/Fire Scanner, and my wife visiting a Facebook Community Page, it turns out that Transformers are Exploding (Shorting, Catching Fire, etc. seems to fall under the Exploding Category). 

Record, or Near Record Cold Temperatures. I’ve heard that people in Georgia and Louisiana had frozen pipes.

Pittsburgh, on Friday, it was 39° F at 4:00 AM, -2.4° F  at 1:44 PM, and 6.8° F when I began this Blog on Saturday (see the Featured Image at the top of the Blog). 

Every time the Lights Started to Flash, I thought we would lose power, but it was actually more and more customers losing power, apparently when their system shorts, the voltage in our system goes low until the shorted circuit is Isolated by a Fuse or Protective Relays. 

We have a Gas Furnace. That means that the Blower for the Flue, the Blower for the Forced Air (or Pump for Hot Water Systems), the Computer on the Furnace, and the Thermostat, need electricity to run. But they are only a fraction of the Electrical Power that Electric Furnaces would need for the Resistive Heating Elements. In a world with no Natural Gas, no Gasoline, just Electric Water Heaters, Electric Stoves, Electric Furnaces, Electric Cars, can you imagine the Electric Power that will be needed?

“UPDATE: Now Indiana Michigan Power Customers Told to Cut Electricity Usage, Face Rolling Black Outs During Sub-Zero Freeze”

See the Headline above. This is in a age when Electric Stoves, Furnaces, Water Heaters, and Cars, are relatively rare, but they want to demand we all get Electric Cars and Electric Appliances, there’s no way they’d ever be able to supply that much energy, and if they marginally do it, it’ll kill and harm millions when another bout of cold weather like this occurs again when they are unable to supply the power.

Ohms Law and Related Formulas: 

E = I x R  Voltage = Current x Resistance
P = I x E  Power = Current x Voltage
I = P ÷ E  Current = Power ÷ Voltage

We have Three Heaters. One has High, Medium, and Low Heat, Two have High and Low Heat. Of those Two, One has the values marked (1200 and 1500 Watts), and the other, all they advertise is 1500 Watts. But I wanted to know the Lower Power Value.

My Toolbox is in a difficult to reach place (actually, my wife will complain if I move the curtain she affixed to ward off the cold from a utility room), and in it is the Line Splitter I need to Measure the Current from the Heater that doesn’t specify the Lower Setting Wattage. I was a little irritated, but remembered that I had easy access to a Vintage Analog Amprobe I bought to use and write about, it has a Splitter too.

Sperry Splitter 1

The Amprobe Splitter I used is very similar to the
Sperry Model shown above and works the same way

Below are the meters I used in all their Splendor. The Shorting Bar is not used for what I was doing (if you plug the Splitter in a Receptacle and Insert the Shorting Bar, it Shorts the Receptacle, Sparks, Damage, and Injury may occur), it’s for a specialized purpose that isn’t often seen. I originally grabbed the Fluke Clamp Ammeter, but the Clamp is too big to fit into the Amprobe Splitter through the two Square Areas marked x1 and x10.

x1 Reads the Actual A/C Current Measured, the x10 ten times that amount (and to get the actual current, you divide the Measurement by 10). The x10 is useful, especially with the Attachments that came with the Amprobe, to measure Low Currents and have the Analog Amprobe Display get to about the Midway Point for the best accuracy. I’ve seen it used to measure the Current in a Thermostat Circuit (the old Mercury Capsule Round Honeywell Thermostats) to set the Anticipator Value.

Meter 2

See the following for more details on the Amprobe Meter:

An Unused Amprobe R3 Current Clamp Ammeter – a Piece of History

An Unused Amprobe R3 Current Clamp Ammeter – a Piece of History

Using the Amprobe Meter and Splitter, and the BK Precision Model 350 Meter Below (this is from the Early 1980s and is in Mint Condition), I made a series of measurements with the Heater on High and Low.


The Set-up.

The Heater is Plugged-into the Splitter, the Splitter is Plugged-into the Receptacle, and Measurements will be taken with Each Meter in the x1 and x10 Positions, with the Heater on Low then again with the Heater on High. 

Meter 2 - 2

Meter 1 - 1

The Images above; Heater on Low; on the x1 Position, show just under 6 Amps for the Amprobe, and 5.11 Amps for the BK Precision. But the Center of an Analog Scale is generally the best place to get an accurate reading, it’s based on how the Movement is designed. 

Meter 2 - 4

Meter 1 - 4

The Images above; Heater on Low; on the x10 Position, show 52 Amps for the Amprobe, and 53.3 Amps for the BK Precision. The Amprobe is reading in the Center of the Analog Scale for Better Accuracy. 

52 ÷ 10 = 5.2 Amps on the Amprobe

53.3 ÷ 10 = 5.33 Amps on the BK Precision 

Using the x10 Multipler, Adjusting the Meter Range so that a Reading can be taken Mid Scale, and Remembering to Divide by 10 seems to have made the Amprobe and BK Precision return much more similar values. Do not make the Mistake that a Digital Display on any Meter means that the Data is more reliable, it’s possible to have a more accurate Analog Meter, but a few concerns apply with Analog Meters. 

  1. Start with the Range HIGHER than you’ll need, then work to Lower Ranges. Digital Meters can be very forgiving of mistakes, but certain mistakes can cause harm to an Analog Meter. As usual, I didn’t have the correct Range Selected, and when I turned on the Heater, the Amprobe Indicating Needle Pegged on the top and was bouncing around. This isn’t proper Meter usage. The Range can be changed with the Amprobe Meter in use, via the Thumb Wheel. Start with a very High Current Range, then turn to Lower Ones until the Meter Needle is 1/3 to 2/3 of the way up on the Scale, ideally about half. 
  2. Parallax is a problem with Analog Meter Accuracy. You must look Directly at the Needle. Not below looking up, not above looking down, but straight in. Some Meters use a Mirrored Scale, that way, looking straight at the Needle, no Reflection of the Needle can be seen above or below means you have eliminated the Parallax. 

Meter 2 - 6

Meter 1 - 5

The Images above; Heater on High; on the x1 Position, show just at 12 Amps for the Amprobe, and 11.12 Amps for the BK Precision. The Needle on the Amprobe is decently placed for a good reading, it’s technically slightly passed the 12, so 12.1 Amps might be closer. 

Meter 2 - 5

Meter 1 - 6

The Images above; Heater on High; on the x10 Position, show 112 Amps for the Amprobe, and 115 Amps for the BK Precision. The Amprobe Needle is decently placed in the Analog Scale for Better Accuracy. Each Line between the 100 and 150 Mark on the Amprobe is 10 Amps. Due to parallax, the view as shown makes the needle appear slightly Lower than it should be, so the 112 Amps is about where I think it is. These values need divided by 10 to show the actual current drawn by the Heater on the High Position. 11.2 Amps for the Amprobe, and 11.5 for the BK Precision, would be the actual values. 

Low Setting Power Consumption: 

6 Amps for the Amprobe, and 5.11 Amps for the BK Precision on the x1 Position.

5.2 Amps on the Amprobe, and  5.33 Amps on the BK Precision when taken from the x10 Position, then the results divided by 10. 

P = I x E  Power = Current x Voltage 

So, Power Equals Current x Voltage. 

P = 5.2 x 120 = 624 Watts Amprobe 

P = 5.33 x 120 = 639.6 Watts BK Precision 

High Setting Power Consumption: 

12 Amps for the Amprobe, and 11.12 Amps for the BK Precision on the x1 Position.

11.2 Amps on the Amprobe, and  11.5 Amps on the BK Precision when taken from the x10 Position, then the results divided by 10. 

P = I x E  Power = Current x Voltage 

So, Power Equals Current x Voltage. 

P = 11.2 x 120  = 1344 Watts for the Amprobe 

P = 11.5 x 120 = 1380 Watts for the BK Precision 

There is an Oscillating Feature on this Heater, it was not Engaged when the Readings were taken, it would also consume additional Power. 

The Manufacturer considers that the Heater will see a Range of Voltages, and the Total Wattage must be at the Specifications, or Less, it cannot be more without Nuisance Breaker Trips and possible overheating concerns for the Receptacle and Wiring. I found the Specs on the Heater, see below: 

Heater Specs

These Heaters employ Resistive Heating Elements, Electric Furnaces have the same. Supposedly Heat Pumps won’t work below 30° to 35° F. Heat Pump systems (Essentially an AC that works backwards in the Winter) in the U.S. are associated with a Furnace of some form, and that Furnace has Resistive Heating Elements just like the Heater Discussed here has. As the Temperatures drop lower and lower, Heat Pumps will not work, and the system turns off the Heat Pump and Energizes Resistive Heating Elements. One YouTube Show I watch, in North Carolina, experienced a few Rolling Black Outs since the Power Company was unable to supply the demand caused by the Unusually Low Temperatures and Related Additional Electricity Use. Gas or Propane Furnaces use considerably less Electric Power than Heat Pumps or Resistive Heating Element Furnaces. As the government recklessly pushes the world towards Green Energy, any person cognizant of the issue will realize that if they can’t supply the Electrical Needs now, they aren’t likely to be able to supply them as they force people to switch to Electric Cars, Furnaces, Water Heaters, etc. 

Heaters that draw a significant amount of current can overload the Circuit, cause Damage to the Receptacle, Plug, and/or Wiring, or cause a Fire. We select Heater Models with a Low and High Range, or preferably a Low, Medium, and High, and determine the current flowing, at each setting, and only use the Heater on Low or occasionally Medium.

At 120 Volts: 

  • 600 to 900 Watts is good for a Low Setting and uses 5 Amps and 7.5 Amps Respectively. 
  • 900 Watts is a common Medium Setting, and uses 7.5 Amps.
  • 1200 Watts (the Low Setting on some Heaters) uses 10 Amps, and this is increasingly a problem for some bad connections, old wiring, circuits with other loads, etc. 
  • 1500 Watts is often the High, I would not expect to see or attempt to use, anything more than 1500 Watts in the U.S. on a Portable Heater Plugged into a common Receptacle. It uses 12.5 Amps. It’s best to use the Low and Medium Settings where possible to limit Heating of the Cord, Plug, Receptacle, Wiring, and Breaker. 

Be sure Heaters Cycle, if they remain on (we have one where the Thermostat Contacts nearly Weld Together periodically, the Thermostat Must be Turned all the Way Down [cooler] before they Open again), the Cord, Plug, Receptacle, Wiring, and Breaker, don’t have a chance to cool down. If everything was perfect, as long as the Heater Current Draw was within range of the Wiring and Receptacle, it wouldn’t matter, but things are often not perfect. 

Our House Wiring Lessons May Help You Prevent a Disaster!

Our House Wiring Lessons May Help You Prevent a Disaster!

 Be careful out there, the cold weather has Electric Heaters out en masse. 





Our House Wiring Lessons May Help You Prevent a Disaster!

The Featured Image, above, is one example of possibly significant issues from something that seems so minor. The White Wires are Looped Around the Screws in the Wrong Direction, because Tightening the Screws will spread these Loops Open Wider. The Black Wire is Looped Correctly (Tightening the Screws will Pull the Loop closed more, assuring a Better Connection), but one wire is being held onto by the Skin of it’s Teeth, something like this, with a Heater plugged in, will generate much heat because of the limited contact area, this will produce receptacle failures, possibly heater plug failures, and even could cause a fire.

I am an Industrial Electrician. I worked 25 years at the same employer (some Electricians work from their Union Hall). Although I wouldn’t feel comfortable wiring a home, there are well established principles of Electricity. U.S. Homes used a Fuse Box or most likely use a Circuit Breaker Panel to provide Overcurrent Protection to the circuits used in your home.

Wiring from the Circuit Breaker Panel or Fuse Box is sized according to need in the house, and the Circuit Breaker or Fuse is Sized According to the Wiring Used.

Rule of Thumb, #14 Gauge Wiring is used on 15 Amp Circuits, #12 Gauge Wiring is used on 20 Amp Circuits, and #10 Gauge Wiring is used on 30 Amp Circuits. Most Home Wiring is generally #14 Gauge or #12 Gauge. The lower the Gauge, the thicker the wire.

Older Homes were Knob and Tube. They used an Insulator to Connect an Insulated Wire to a Joist or Stud, and a Ceramic Tube was used to take an Individual Insulated Wire through a Joist or Stud. Newer homes (for many years now), use an Insulated Cable, with 2 or more Insulated Conductors inside, and an Uninsulated Grounding Conductor, these Cables are run by Drilling Thru Joists or Studs (in an approved area of them according to specific rules) and in principle end in a Workbox or Enclosure that, in turn, receives wiring from the Intended Device (Light Switch, Receptacle, Ceiling Fan, etc.).

Knob and Tube and More 1

Older homes often are Electrically Insufficient for modern living needs. I have had 2 homes Rewired due to Electrical Deficiencies. Our first Home was from 1900, the “newer one” from the 1930s. All the photos in this Blog (unless otherwise Indicated) are from the Re-Wiring Effort of the 1930’s Era Home. 

We inherited our first home, it was my wife’s home from childhood, it had only had 2 Bedrooms as does our current house, yet in both cases, the entire upstairs was practically on one circuit. That means a Heater used in both Bedrooms will likely overload and Trip the Circuit Breaker, blow the Fuse, or if the Breaker is not functioning correctly, or the Breaker or Fuse are oversized for the wiring, may well cause a fire. For Example: If you have 15 Amp Wiring, you cannot have a 20, or 30 Amp Fuse or Breaker on the circuit. If you have a 20 Amp Circuit, you cannot use a 30 Amp Fuse or Breaker on it.

You must understand the Electrical System in your house, and its limitations, and work within that to be better able to safely use various Electrical Devices.

A Breaker may be labeled Front Bedroom, or Rear Bedroom, but in the wall between the Bedrooms, or other receptacles in each room, may not be on the circuit you think, same with a Bedroom and Bathroom Sharing a common wall, or Kitchen/Dining Room, Living Room/Dining Room, etc. To help you Visualize what receptacles are wired to what Breaker or Fuse, you can Map-Out your Electrical System.

One Suggestion:

Mapping Electrical Circuits in Your Home (Do not worry about the part on Determining the Gauge of the Wiring, that should be left to someone that is Trained and Experienced on doing so).


My solution was simple. I took a piece of paper and drew maps of every room in the house. On the map I located every outlet, light switch, etc. Then I turned off each breaker one at a time, and tested every outlet in a room, every switch. It helps to have a few items to plug into different outlets so you can test more than one outlet at a time.

For some boxes, you must be careful, as you may have two circuits going into the box in some cases. And some outlets may even be split in two, or some outlets are set up as switched outlets. Identify all of these things, taking careful notes on the map.

This all took little time….. In the end, I have those maps, so whenever anything needs doing, I pull out the map and shut down the correct breaker easily before I do any work. Even so, I STILL check the box to test if the lines into it are dead. You can never be too careful with electricity.”

Take your time. It doesn’t need to be done in one day, but try to Map a Room or two Per day as time allows. The Top Part of a Receptacle can be on one circuit, and the bottom on another, or more likely, they can be Split this way to allow a Light Switch to control ½ of the Receptacle but not the other. Watch out for such possibilities. Remember the Ceiling Lights, or Ceiling Fans, with or without Lighting, must be Mapped to the Fuse or Breaker that supplies it, same with Basement, Garage, Porch, Deck, and Patio Lights and Receptacles.

20 Common Signs of Electrical Problems at Home or in Your Office

Top 8 Signs Of Electrical Problems In Your Home

Buy Commercial Grade Receptacles, Especially for Receptacles to be used for Air Conditioners, Microwave Ovens, Heaters, Refrigerators, etc., or in Shop Areas that may see significant current draw during Tool use, have them professionally installed. I used these (see following link) installed in every location throughout both my homes when I had them rewired.

EATON Wiring BR15V-SP-L 15-Amp, 125-Volt Commercial Grade Back and Side Wire Duplex Receptacle, Ivory (or Similar)


The Receptacle Above Accepts Wiring Straight in the Rear, without looping around the Screw (or you can use them Looped Around the Screw if Desired). But these Clamp the Wire Tightly when the Screw is Tightened, see the Silver Metal Plate at the Base of the Screws. The Screw must be loosened, wire Inserted, then Tightened to Clamp the Plate against the wire for an Excellent Connection. Always Tightened Unused Screws on any Receptacle or Switch. These are Quality Commercial Grade Receptacles.

The Following Video is not of the Rear Connector style Receptacle above, it’s of a very cheap, Push-in Wire Connector prone to failure. Push in means the Wire is Pushed-into a Spring Clip and the Screws have nothing to do with the Connection, but on many you can use the Push-In Connection (not advised) or Loop the Wire on the Screw (Advised). The Eaton Receptacle Above can be Rear Wired, but the Wire is FIRMLY CLAMPED by the Screw (Excellent design).

Backstabbing/Push-in Wiring causes Electrical Failures and Fires

What is Backstabbing a Receptacle or Switch and why is it important to hire an electrician that does not use this method of wiring?

Receptacle Compilation

These Images only show some heating, likely due to the Back-Stabbing Push In Style Connector. Other websites have images of Receptacles Destroyed by the Heat, but I am unable to use their images. Visit the Above Link to see a somewhat worse Receptacle, but even those don’t compare to what I have seen in images today and in my experience as an Electrician.

As I said, we inherited my wife’s home from childhood, it had Electrical Issues. One was an Extension Cord run from a receptacle to a remote area of the room, the cord was attached to the top of the Baseboard, went up, over, and back down, the Door Frame, and continued on along the top of the Baseboard. Not a good thing to do. Another was the Sink Area Receptacles, No GFCI (in England an RCD), No Grounds, and my mother-in-law touched the Dishwasher and the Sink and was almost Electrocuted (had a problem in the Dishwasher). It is permissible in the U.S. to use a GFCI Receptacle where Grounds are Absent. Had that been done, she would likely not have been significantly shocked, had the Grounds been used, and the Appliance Properly Grounded via the Power Cord, she would not have been shocked. And Grounds throughout the house were missing due to the Knob and Tube Wiring originally used.

The Test Buttons are on GFCI Receptacles for a reason, GFCI Receptacles and Breakers can fail to Trip when needed, Test periodically, and before use if possible.

Below – Click on Images for Full Size.

  • Showing mostly Ungrounded Receptacles:

Below – Click on Images for Full Size.

  • Wires Crushed by Ceiling Fan Brackets
  • Electrical Work Boxes Absent
  • Non-Permitted Splices and Splice Techniques
  • Light Socket used with Extension Cord and not Mounted on Electrical Workbox:

Our 1930’s Era Home had also had Significant Wiring Issues.

  • No Grounds for most Receptacles
  • No Required GFCI Near Sinks
  • Splices made in areas and in ways not permitted by Code
  • And the House Inspection that revealed signs of a “Former” Rat Infestation failed to note that the house had a “Current Rat Infestation”, and Rats, and Mice, chew on Wire Insulation. The condition of the house allowed us to move into a Neighborhood that would otherwise be well out of our price range. It’s not Upscale, but it’s above Downscale.

Bathroom Issues 1

We called the people that Re-Wired our former home for about $5,000 and they wanted $15,000 to do this one, and this one was easier. I threw them out. We found a Registered Electrician willing to do the job over a few week’s time, the total came to about $6,000 which is fine when prices were adjusted over the 15 year period. And, in an unusual move for a contractor, we paid him before he completed the work, so he could take his family to Disney or similar (which made the job take longer, but we were still living in our other home), and he returned and finished the job. I’ve known contractors to bolt when they had cash in hand. A few things were adjusted based on my input, I appreciate him working with us. He did the job in the evenings, after working his regular job.

Rats 2

Rats 1

Rats, UGH. All the Electrical Work being nearly done, the Electrician said that the Wiring from the Breaker Panel to the A/C Condensing Unit outside was modern, and he wasn’t going to replace that. So I inspected it, and lo and behold, I found exposed copper on a 240 Cable, and it needed replaced.

I carried an Inductive Voltage Tester (Non-Contact Voltage Tester, see Link Below this Paragraph, it’s my Blog Entry and has other photos on the Rat Damage), and happened to place it against the Refrigerator Shell, and it showed Energized. I unplugged the Refrigerator, and discovered the Cord had been chewed on by a Rat or Rats, and it was contacting the Refrigerator shell. I replaced the Cord, the Electrician Replaced the Outlet, modernizing it, grounding it, and it’s on it’s own circuit. The Rats also ate the Cable TV Outer Cable Insulation (not shown).

Non Contact Voltage Testers 

Non Contact Voltage Testers

Porch and Living Room Ceiling Fan

Deviations based on my Suggestions:

The Porch Light Switch, on the Left. We had to have the Front Door Replaced, the Frame was damaged. Here, the Door Work is done.

The Switch is Fed from the Basement, but the Wires weren’t coming out, though they can be abandoned in the wall once verified as De-energized and Isolated (Cut) from the Feed, it still posed a problem with the New Wiring, and I didn’t want the Electrician to disturb the Plaster Repairs that had been done for the Door Frame.

I suggested we move the Switch inside more. Just inside the Door are the stairs to the 2nd Floor. The Angle of the Steps can barely be seen in the Right Photo. This puts the Switch about 8 Feet into the Living Room, which was fine for Electrical Code.

An astute observer might notice there are 2 Switches. There is a Ceiling Fan/Light in the Living Room that was Fed by a Power Cord from a Receptacle, Strung Across the Ceiling on Hooks used to hang Decorative things from, the Cord had a Switch in it, and the Cord entered the Ceiling Fan by being Crushed under the Top Canopy against the Ceiling, risking a Short. We kept the Fan but fed it from the Right of the Two Switches, a location the Electrician already intended for use for the Ceiling Fan Switch.

The Bathroom Receptacle and Switch Movement is Described above. It was my Idea, and his effort, that accomplished it.


Above: Two 3 – Way Switches at the Top and Bottom of the Steps to the 2nd Floor. You can control the lights at the Top, Bottom, or Both, from either location. Though I was surprised the Electrician tied to discourage me from insisting on this feature, insist I did. Above is the end result. At the base of the Stairs, we wanted a Receptacle (used for a Light on the DVD Stand, or Vacuum Cleaner on the Stairs) as we eliminated a nearby Receptacle that would be behind a DVD Cabinet. Both Switches Shown are 3-Way Switches. The Left, (an Illuminated Clear Switch) is for the Ceiling Light above it, the Right (shown in Combination with the Receptacle), is for the Light at the Top of the Stairs. There was no Switch at this location (above), as there were no 3-Way Switches, and the Hanging Light above the base of the Stairs was fed from a Receptacle and used a Cord Switch.

Upstairs Hall Light

Above: This was at the Top of the Stairs. I still have the Brass Switch/Receptacle Plate. But now there are 2 Lighted 3-Way Switches. We used a Clear Switch for the Downstairs Light, and Clear Switch at the Top of the Steps for the Downstairs Light, but one Illuminating Switch eventually failed to Illuminate, I replaced it, with a Different Brand Clear Switch. Like an idiot, I allowed the Right One to stay Energized (only shut off one Breaker, I wanted the Hall Light on). After 25 years in Heavy Industry as an Electrician, this is the worst I was ever shocked. Pushing-in the wiring on the Left Switch I replaced, I touched the Hot Wire on the Right Switch, and it went through my chest to my other arm that was touching the Grounded Electrical Workbox, I screamed and scared my wife that was helping me. Shut that Power off, Test to be Sure it’s off. Don’t take chances.

The 3 – Way Switches described above, most are Illuminated, i.e. Lighted.

Lighted Switches

But we went from a Switch and Receptacles at the top, and nothing at the bottom (of the stairs) to Switches Only at the Top and Switches and Receptacle at the Bottom.

Illuminated Light Switches can actually show if the Light is Available to come on. If the Bulb Burns-out, or the Light is off by another Switch (such as in a Ceiling Fan), the Illuminated Switch goes out too (depending on the Design of the Light Switch).

Charm and Practicality of Illuminated Switches

Charm and Practicality of Illuminated Switches

Recessed Lighting

Recessed Lighting 2

One thing we liked about this house was the semi-finished basement. Dry Wall on the Walls and Ceilings, and the Ceilings had Recessed Lighting. The Dry Wall also provided housing and pathways for the Rats that were still living in the home, and these Recessed Lights had almost no clearance to the floor above. If you used the Correctly Sized Bulb, they “probably” wouldn’t be a Fire Hazard, but people have a tendency to improvise. I remember waking in the middle of the night to Fire Trucks at my neighbor’s when I was a kid, they left the Light on at the Base of the Stairs to the 2nd Floor, and the Bulb Heat caused the Ceiling to Smolder (but not catch fire).

My neighbors didn’t abide by the warning on the size Bulbs that could be used. For these, I left them in place with most of the Dry Wall Removed, but I bought LED Flood Lights sized to the Wattage Equivalent but that used tremendously less current and are much cooler in use. Also notice that the Electrical Box Cover is missing on the Bottom Image, as is the Box Connector for the Cable. In addition, I think this is 30 Amp Wiring, much larger than needed. It does seem to be grounded though.

Here is the inside of the Recess Light Shell. It gives various bulbs and the Maximum Wattage that can be used for each Style. It points out, a few times, about the Fire Hazard Nature of the Lights and the need to be careful and follow the Labeling and Installation Requirements. LED Floods are great, they are very bright and nowhere near as Hot as one of the Incandescent Lights that many would use.

Table Lamps, Ceiling Lights, other types of Lighting Devices, have specifications for the Maximum Wattage the Bulb can be to Safely Use the Light. The Light must be used as specified. Distance from Combustibles, Air Flow for Cooling, and some Bulbs are Specified for Base Down use, or Base Up and Base Down, follow the advice to use the Lighting Safely.


Ground Improvised

Above: Can you believe this. A Grounded Receptacle is Needed, You can see the Receptacle on the Bottom of the Black Wire to the Left. It looks like it’s going “over” the top of the Pipe. Nah. They wrapped the Black Wire (Technically it should be Green or Taped Green) around the Cold Water Pipe and Taped it (not permitted of course). With New Water Meters, it may not even have a Pathway to Ground, and if the Water Meter was Pulled, it may be a Shock Hazard to the Plumbers. This Receptacle was Removed. The Receptacle wasn’t needed. I think the Electrician provided a Jumper Across the Water Meter, and he Supplied 2 Ground Rods, hammered them into the Ground, and Correctly Grounded the Circuit Breaker Panel.

Click on the Images Above to Enlarge. They were from my son’s house, the Neutral Opened at the Weatherhead (right image), a Very Dangerous Condition, but the Fuse Box was Grounded on the Water Pipe, so the Current was Returning to the Transformer Via the Cold Water Pipe. The meter on the Above Left View reads 4.4 Amps Flowing in the Cold Water Pipe.

No Work Box

Apparently a Common Practice “Back in the Day” This Porch Ceiling Light (or any Ceiling Light) just had the Knob and Tube Wiring pressed again the Ceiling. There should be an Electrical Workbox for the wires to Junction In, and being in such a Box, if they happen to Overheat at the Connections, will be much less likely to start a fire.

Learn about your Electrical System. If you feel confident, Map the System, for Each Receptacle and Each Overhead Light. If it takes a while to get it done, at least it will be done, if you don’t start, it’ll never get done. Get the help of someone to make it easier. Be sure to be safe. If the Breakers are Loose, if the Fuse Box or Breaker Panel is rusted, get someone with experience to decide if it’s safe. Be sure to restore all the power when your are done testing, to be sure that Essential Equipment, Furnace, Refrigerators, and Freezers, are powered.

If you want a Dedicated Area for a Heater Receptacle, whether in one Room, or Multiple Receptacles on Different Circuits for Different Rooms, consult a qualified Electrician. I can guarantee you many of the people you call may want to Give you a New Service. Apparently, that’s their Schick, find someone that can do the work you want with what you have (unless it’s genuinely dangerous).

I wrote this blog due to the number of Fires that are occurring in the Pittsburgh Area. One just is happening now as I am at the end of the Blog, 5:15 PM, 2022-12-23. I am convinced that the use of Space Heaters in multiple areas of a house, or the use of a Heater that draws too much current for the wiring, is responsible for many.

LED Lantern Light, Princeton Tec Helix

In my previous Blog, I discussed Flashlights and Headlamps that I own or are otherwise known to me. I inadvertently omitted to mention the Princeton Tec Helix.

Christmas 2022 Gift Suggestions, Flashlights, the Perfect Gift! 

Christmas 2022 Gift Suggestions, Flashlights, the Perfect Gift!

Princeton Tec Helix Backcountry Rechargeable Lantern Review

This is a Lantern, kind of. An area Light good for use around children, it has White (more a natural Slightly Yellowish White than the Blue White light some LEDs produce) and Red LEDs. The controls are simple (Older Models had Rotating Controls).

On the Control Panel, Swipe Your Finger:

  • Left to Right = White
  • Right to Left = Red
  • Center Touch and Hold = Dim
  • Swipe a Second Time = Medium
  • Swipe a Third Time = Flash
  • Swipe Again = Off

If you wait several seconds between Swipes, the Next Swipe Turns-Off the Light regardless of the Brightness or Operational Mode.

The Globe Glows Green if Exposed to Light, Operating the Light causes it to Glow when the Light is Turned-Off, a Flashlight will do it, and it persists for a little while while gradually darkening. And, removing the Globe (it is secured for use, but comes off easily) allows the LED to be used to Area Illuminate a Tent, or makes a fairly impressive Flashlight in itself.

There are Rechargeable Versions and Versions that use AAA Batteries. For Children, the AAA Version may be best (yet avoid using for very small children due to swallowing hazards of the Batteries), it avoids the very remote chance of the Batteries Igniting as Lithium Batteries have been known to do.

As hard as I tried, I could not find links to sites that I am familiar with to the product that reliably shows that it is the AAA Battery Version or the Rechargeable Version. To avoid confusion, I used the Cabelas Link that has both Clearly Marked and appear to be In-Stock.

Princeton Tec Helix Backcountry Rechargeable Camp Lantern

Princeton Tec Helix Backcountry Lantern (AAA Batteries)

Princeton Tec Helix Backcountry Rechargeable Review

My Light has a Green Trim on the Globe, Black Body, Gray Legs, that doesn’t seem to be available anymore. There is a Red Trim Model on some Websites, or a Gray Trim Model, see Links Below, but neither one is In-Stock at this time:

But the following link is to a Web Page stating it uses AAA Batteries, but the URL to the Article says it’s Rechargeable.

Princeton Tec Helix Backcountry LED Lantern (Black/Red) BH #PRHX1BK • MFR #HX1-BK

Princeton Tec Helix Swipe-Activated Rechargeable Lantern (Gray) BH #PRHX22RCGRY • MFR #HX22-RC-GRY

They have one Model in Stock, it claims it’s the AAA Battery Model, but verify before ordering:

Princeton Tec Helix Swipe-Activated Lantern BH #PRHX22MC • MFR #HX22-MC

I have 2 of these Lights, I enjoy using them, they operate flawlessly, both of mine are Rechargeable and the same Color Trim and Controls. The Charger is not Supplied, but if you have a Cell Phone or Tablet, you can Charge it from their Charger, or Computer USB Port, it comes with a Short Charging Cable that plugs into a Standard USB Port or Jack and has a MICRO-USB connector on the Light Connection end of the cable.

Manufacturer Links, the AAA Batteries Unit is Out of Stock, the Rechargeable seems to be available. Cabelas has stock on both items, see links above on Cabelas Selections.


HELIX LI (Lithium Rechargeable)

Santa Helix

Christmas 2022 Gift Suggestions, Flashlights, the Perfect Gift!

Christmas, and the Magic of Amazon and other mail order centers, means that things can be purchased by mail and delivered within days.

Flashlights, most people need them, but what to buy?

My recommendations are for Modest, Practical, Lights that use Alkaline or Standard Batteries over Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Batteries have been known to explode or burst into flames. Not often, mind you, but I would not want a Headlamp with that possibility, it’s being worn by the Eyes on the Head.

And, I have had the misfortune of having a certain model Headlamp (the manufacturer is not any of those mentioned here) cause me to have brief Eye Pain and a persistent Green Spot in my vision for hours, I thought it would never go away. I was staring at the Lens, there was a small screw that is apparently the Stop for rotation of the lens, I thought it may be used to contact a switch and I watched it as I turned the Lens and the Light came on. I believe that model had poorly designed optics, and the Retinal Injury was caused by Point Source issues that can occur with LED Lights. Point Source is the phenomenon of the LED Light being generated at a very small point (versus Filament Incandescents that the Light is Generated by the Glowing along the Filament aka a Diffuse Source) and this Point of Intense Light, if presented to the eye, can actually cause damage to the Retina.

In my opinion, Insanely Intense LED Lights are prone to cause Vision Impairment or Loss in Humans and Animals and should be avoided except for very specialized needs in limited situations. One would not let a grandchild play with an Insanely Intense LED Product, therefore, I recommend the LED Lights I have used that are more than adequate for Work and General Home Use but not the Insanely Intense LED Products that attract some (but still use care around kids and animals).

Laser and LED retina hazard assessment with an eye simulator


  • All Princeton Tec products are designed, manufactured and assembled in our New Jersey workshops.
  • Our story begins at the bottom of the ocean and now spans more than 45 years.

Looking now, the selection has changed considerably from the last time I visited their page, because of that, I’m sticking to endorsing the items I’m familiar with.

Handheld Flashlight, I highly recommend the Torrent:


Princeton Tec Torrent LED 280 Lumen Dive Light

This is a Diver’s Flashlight. Even if you don’t do Diving (underwater exploration), it must be evident that it needs to be Water Proof, and many Flashlights that indicate that they can be exposed to Rain (Water Resistant) cannot be submerged, and exposed to Rain in subjective, so that very heavy downpours may cause water infiltration on lesser lights, but not on the Torrent. It operates on 4 or 8 AA Batteries (they put 4 Batteries in parallel with the other 4, to double the current and therefore the length of time the Flashlight Operates, but it will operate with only 4 Batteries). It’s available in 2 colors, Neon Yellow (mine) and Black. 8 AA Batteries are Included. It has a Locking Switch (Locks in Off Position). Just a great Flashlight with a robust feel.

In the Specifications found online, please note that the Burn Time of 1.5 Hours is with 8 AA Batteries and the Light at Full Brightness. As the Batteries Discharge, the Brightness Decreases very gradually over time, and the Light will operate at Reduced Brightness for up to 138 Hours. Changing the Batteries would then restore Full Brightness for another Cycle of Use.

Regulated LED Lights hold the full brightness as the Battery Voltage Drops until it Drops Below a Certain Point, then the Light Begins to Dim. Non-Regulated LEDs begin to dim as the voltage drops at all, so they only briefly are at full brightness.

Regulated LED:

  • Sophisticated Regulating Circuit Maintains Initial Brightness As-Long-As Batteries Have Sufficient Voltage
  • Burn Time (500 Lumens): 1.5-Hours
  • Total Burn Time: Up to 138-Hours

Princeton Tec Torrent LED Dive Light (500 Lumens, Neon Yellow), one Size

Princeton Tec Torrent 500 – Review, Ownership, and Warranty Experience

Please remember that it is a decent Diving Flashlight and an Exceptional General Use Flashlight. I have one, I have loaned it to relatives going camping, they liked it, and I use it around the house.

Princeton Tec Headlamps.

These are two headlamps that I really like, they have design considerations that make them suitable for use in Industry, but really are well made, great home performers. The EOS is a Headlamp I bought from an Amish Store. I really like it’s size, light beam, and performance. As we had situations with Ignitable Atmospheres at work, I introduced this Headlamp to my Workplace, and it is well liked. They chose to order the EOS II, which provided additional safety for our workplace exposures. But the EOS is fine, has 3 Light Levels, and a Strobe, and it’s much less expensive.

The Following Images are Slightly Different in Device Labeling from the Current Design, it’s only a superficial difference so I didn’t update the images.


Princeton Tec EOS Headlamp

The EOS is Rated at 300 Lumens and:

  • Suitable for use in Class 1, Division 2, Groups A, B, C and D Hazardous Locations
  • A waterproof, durable, simple to use workhorse headlamp.
  • Offers high, medium, low and flash output modes. Uses a Maxbright LED that allows for the beam to spot at distances. Using a Princeton Tec designed optic, the EOS provides a clean beam pattern that is great for both localized needs as well as spotting a target as far as 60 meters away.


Princeton Tec EOS II Headlamp


The EOS II Rated at 170 Lumens and:

  • Intrinsically Safe (Pertains to Exposure to Ignitable Gases and Vapors)
  • Suitable for use in CL I, DIV 1, Groups A, B, C, D. TEMP CODE T4.
  • Waterproof, and constructed of high grade materials. The technology inside offers the best in long burn times and utilizes advanced circuitry that regulates the output providing superior and constant brightness on two modes.


MagLites, they are world renown, high quality, and MADE IN THE U.S.

  • Every single production employee on the Mag Instrument payroll lives and works in the U.S.A.
  • Of course, Mag does employ sales personnel in the other regions of the world where Mag® flashlights are sold; but all of Mag’s flashlight production facilities, and all of its production employees, are in the U.S.A.
  • Every Mag Instrument flashlight, no matter where in the world it ends up, comes from a factory located in the U.S.A. and staffed by American workers.

Here are 2 that I own. These are exceptional lights. The first one below is the newer one, it has a Grenade Style Grip. Very nice Light, such a performer.

The Second is similar with a Knurled Grip, and mine is so old, it was incandescent. I bought a New Reflector for it, and an LED Conversion, and it is a performer too, but my conversion cost me about the same as buying the ML300LX, and since the ML300LX was designed as an LED Unit, it produces a Better Spot and Spill Pattern in the Light Beam than the Converted One. Nevertheless, the Flashlight is 35 years old or older, and still works perfectly, justifying the initial cost, which, even by today’s standards, is reasonable.

I have used the 2 links in the following because they have stock at a fair price, and seem to be able to get them out before Christmas.

Maglite ML300LX 625 Lumens 3-Cell D LED Flashlight (Black Matte, Clamshell Packaging)

Mag Lite 300LX

MAGLITE LED 625 Lumens 3-Cell D Flashlight

Mag Lite Original

The following are not U.S. Made, to my knowledge, but deserve mention.

I own one of these Spotlights, it is really bright, projects intensely. I can examine my property from my bathroom window at night, it is really a performer (I look for rabbits and deer, and we place apple slices in the backyard the next night if we see them. In the summer we have Ground Level and Above Ground Bird Baths/Deer and Rabbit Water Dishes as well). The light performs well. The Safety that prevents the Light from coming on is a little cheap in feel and use, but it works well.

Rayovac Virtually Indestructible LED Spotlight

Rayovac Indestructible 6AA Pistol-Grip LED Spotlight

Rayovac Virtually Indestructible LED Spotlight, 750 Lumen Waterproof Spot Flashlight, Amazon Link 

Rayovac Sportsman INDESTRUCTIBLE Spotlight

Police Security 99434 Blackout 615 LuML300LX LED 3-CELL D FLASHLIGHT Rechargeable LED Headlamp Amazon Link

Police Security Headlamp

This is a Great Headlamp, but if you have Children, or Grandchildren, you don’t want them to get to this. When I bought my house, it came equipped with rats. We didn’t know that, and since rats were present, the rats went first, then rewired the home, then moved in. The Exterminator used this model of light, and I was impressed. 2 Light Intensity Levels, and the Lens in front of the LED moves in and out, to create a small intense square of light, to a broad circle of light. I like the light, it uses 4 AA Alkaline Batteries, held in a pack at the back of the head. I would not wear a Rechargeable Pack on my Head as Lithium Batteries have been known to explode or ignite, and with it against your head, I would think it could be fatal. But these are not rechargeable. But the Lens in front of the LED is essentially a Magnifying Glass, and I saw warnings not to look at an LED with a Magnifier as it can cause Retinal Damage.

Despite the Battery Pack on the Rear, the Light is very comfortable to wear, much more so than some smaller Headlamps that I have owned.

For more Information, Please also see my Previous Blog Entries (some will contain missing links due to their age and changes at the targeted websites):

My Headlamp Collection and Warning on Possible Retinal Damage That May Occur from Some LED Products

Bright Flashlights, Spotlight, Particles in Air, and Masks.

A Haunting that Wasn’t a Haunting, a Special Number that isn’t a Special Number, and Focused Attention.

A story that I was already aware of, but I got out my original Kindle, and on my Linux Laptop, Modified the PDF slightly using Libre Office, Loaded Calibre E-book Management Tool, it can be Loaded using the Terminal Mode on Linux, and I tried because Calibre said not to use Pre-Packaged versions because they are old and may be buggy.

I tried the terminal mode, it wanted other packages loaded first, so I abandoned that technique and used the version that is included with Linux Mint. Yeah, my Calibre is a few versions old, but hey, it works.

I converted the PDF to MOBI (one of 2 Formats Generally used by Kindles) and Uploaded it to the Kindle using Calibre.

Here is the file location, it can easily be read as follows, it’s only 6 pages long. As I mentioned earlier, modified my downloaded copy slightly with Libre Office and converted to MOBI in Calibre.

A Ghost in the Machine
Click on the Above Link and Select Download in PDF.

OK, why do I mention this Haunting Story?

This Haunting Involved a Sensation of being Watched, Seeing an Apparition, and Motion of a Fencing Epee (used to Train for Sword Fighting) Shaft being held in a Vice, and involved Low Frequency Noise. I’m early in the story and don’t want to reveal too much, but it’s an interesting read.

  1. It’s Analytical. The PDF is the story of a haunting in 2 garages converted to a Lab used for designing Anesthesia Equipment. It sounds like outside the converted garages was a Car Wash or other purposed Water Spraying Bay that had nothing to do with the story (as yet, I’ve only just started to read it).
  2. It involves Nerds and Egg Heads. I have a fondness for them. Jung spoke about Differentiation, essentially the honing of one’s skills towards a specialized purpose that often leaves the person lacking in Social Skills. Boy, that defines my life. I’m not one of the regular guys, and I am painfully aware of it.
  3. It involves Nerds and Egg Heads in a situation with a Haunting. The early part of the PDF describes why it’s important to seek the truth. I fully agree. In one book I read, a Haunted House was slept-in by a Parapsychologist. Later in the night he heard the frightening noise that has rendered the home un-rentable. Clambering into the Attic, and then into the Eave Area of the roof, he found a Whistle (Kid’s Style I believe he said) that was subject to winds blowing into the attic and doing naturally what Whistles do. He removed the haunting by merely removing the whistle. Nerds and Egg Heads will likely seek the truth by compulsion. It reminds me of a story where an Electrical Bus failed at work (15,000 Volt HIGH CURRENT BUS), and the employees ran away from the Bus (so would I), while an Old German Electrician was heard saying in broken English “Something’s Wrong” and heading into the area where the destruction occurred (he was ok, just that he took it on himself to investigate).

Selective Attention Test

The easier we are to fool, the more others will exploit that to fool us more.

Everyday, we hear of more and more people that supposedly died of the vaccine. I am concerned as well, but there is a point that Carl Jung made about Numbers. Once a Number catches our attention, it’s not so much that we actually see it exclusively everywhere, but we ignore other numbers that we see and only take note of the “Special Number”. I am cognizant of often seeing the times of 11:11, and 1:23, it was actually scary how often I noted it. But on those days, I certainly saw Hundreds of other Combinations that I did not think special and therefore did not remember seeing them.

I think more young people are dying unexpectedly, and I am concerned the vaccine is involved. But not everyone that died unexpectedly died from the vaccine. We are focusing on these deaths and it can cause many to have concerns that may not really be justified, and I think that is an issue too. I worked with a guy in his 40s (at the time) that had a Heart Attack in his early 20s, so we’re talking well before the year 2000. And if it happened to him (and his doctors were mystified as to the cause, and he did not have any problems since) it happens, tragically, to others, only we tend to note every death as possibly vaccine related.

When I was in Grade School, in the 60s, a classmate died of a heart issue, although in his case it was known before his death. I’m talking 4th through 8th Grade.

Research, Ask Questions, Be aware. Don’t Jump to Conclusions, but Don’t Blindly Accept the Findings of the Authorities, over the years, I have seen Doctors try and prescribe medication that was contraindicated by medications that I take. One changed it once I told him, one called a Cardiologist friend of his to prove me wrong and the Cardiologist agreed with me.

Trust, but Verify. If you verify Untrustworthy, then no longer Trust. 


Unusual Music Videos and More

The first videos feature Russia. That backward place, locked in the Soviet Union Era. Well, Clearly that’s not true, you can see that Russia may actually be more advanced than the U.S. in terms of the modern designs in it’s cities. I’ve always felt that Trade with Russia would be in everyone’s best interest. The U.S. could manufacture goods, Russians manufacture goods, and the Chinese would be incentivized to manufacture a higher quality product to compete with Russia. Mind you, there are fine things produced in China. I disassembled a Thermostat, prior to using it in a home we rented in the country but only visited on Weekends, Holidays, and Vacation. The Thermostat, made in China, was very nicely made and worked just fine. But I can’t say that for a plethora of other things I’ve had that were made in China.

Modern Moscow. Europe’s largest city

Moscow Russia Aerial Drone 5K

Next, I happened across this video, from 2012, and it caught my attention.

I could not find “The Tribe”, but wanted to know more. I researched and finally found this:

“”Tha Tribe” is a powwow drum.

“Tha Tribe,” has been making their way around the powwow circle for a number of years. The drum group consists of singers representing the Cherokee, Hopi-Tewa, Apache, Oneida, Menominee, Shoshone-Bannock, Sioux, Northern Ute, and Hallwa-Saponi Tribes. Their music is all northern style singing.””

Young Spirit – Fancy Fan Action (Tha Powwow 2012)

And my interest in the Native American Video above was piqued by the Following Video:

DJ Shub – Indomitable ft. Northern Cree Singers (Official Video)

A Comment for the “Tha Powwow 2012” Video mentioned the New Zealand Haka shown below (Use the Link, the Video doesn’t Permit Playing on a Remote Site, it should Open in a New Tab):

Farewell Haka for Mr Stuart Leighton 

The Following Video is the Haka as well. “Ahead of the final of Rugby World Cup 2011 in New Zealand, the French team formed an arrow as the All Blacks performed their pre-match tradition – the Haka.” 

The New Zealand Team won!!

The Greatest Haka EVER?

Returning to a more, U.S. Traditional Motivational Technique, we have the Following:

‘The Sandman’ is a short film featuring the Trona, California High School Football team as they train and go through Hell Week in preparation for the upcoming Fall 2015 season. 

The Sandman

Of the videos featuring Native Americans, New Zealanders, and Americans, they show Unity, Multi-Cultural (Multi-Tribe for the Native Americans), and Resolve, and this is what is missing in America, likely in Europe, from mind numbing exposure to media designed to program us into a specific behavior.

“A poetic short film by Max Stossel & Sander van Dijk:

In the Attention Economy, technology and media are designed to maximize our screen-time. But what if they were designed to help us live by our values?”

This Panda Is Dancing 

A more Cynical Look on Media, I offer the following: VIDEO ESSAY: TV Takeover

If you believe TV, why is this Black Woman happier in the South than she was in the North. She joined the Tea Party and Carries the Confederate Flag as part of the Virginia Flaggers.

Battle Flag – Karen Cooper

Saving Energy in a Year of High Prices and Possibly Shortages!

Fall is upon the Northern Hemisphere, with Winter to soon follow. Utility bills will likely be higher this year, with the bizarre environmental and energy policies of the democrats in the U.S., and other Western nations, alternate heating methods will assuredly be employed by many people. Zone Heating, i.e. the Heating of a Specific Room by some means, while leaving Unused Areas at a cooler Temperature, will assuredly be employed by many. This Discusses Various Means of Saving Energy.

1. Insulate Windows, use the Shrink-Wrap type Kits that used Adhesive Strips, the Shrink Wrap is laid on the Strip, and a Mating Piece of the Strip is used to clip it in place. This is done around the Window, then the Shrink Wrap is Heated with a Hair Dryer, and it Shrinks Tighter, hopefully eliminating the wrinkles. This Form of Insulation creates an Additional Air Space Between the Window and the Shrink Wrap, and the Temperature of the Shrink Wrap (in use) Doesn’t Get as Cold as the Glass, hence the Room Air is Less Influenced by the Warmer Surface of the Shrink Wrap. In addition, worn or poorly fitted Seals on the Window are no longer able to allow Air into the Room from Outside.

Heavy Curtains. We use Heavy Curtains in the Winter (haven’t done the Shrink Wrap yet, but we bought it last season), on many Windows. If it’s Sunny, consider opening them for the Heat from the Sun. As the Sun no longer comes in, or on Cloudy Days, or at Night, Close those Curtains. Before our Current House was Insulated, in the Bedroom we used 2 Heaters, on Low (see Heater Safety Below), on Different Circuits, Heaters Cycling, and my wife Installed Heavy Curtains where there was no Windows. You can buy Tapestries, with Very Stylish Images on them, on Amazon. I can’t vouch for them, but my wife hanging the Curtains on the Wall made the rooms at least Habitable. You can use a Tapestry for a Classy Look, just be careful if you use Open Flame Heating or Open Flame Lights, Near Fireplaces, Near the Discharge of Heaters, etc. Curtains and Tapestries create an Air Space that reduces the Heat Exchange of the Warm Room to the Cold Walls, I’d imagine you could hang Blankets as well.

2. Get a reliable Set-Back Thermostat.

Thermostat White Rodgers 5-2 1F78

Commonly, they are available in 7 Day (each day can be individually programmed) or 5/2 Day where there is a Monday thru Friday as one Programmed Unit, and Saturday and Sunday as the other. Figure out what time you go to bed. Set it to a lower temperature to begin 15 minutes before you go to bed, or if your house is drafty, set it for your bedtime, or even 15 minutes after. Set it to return to the desired Temperature about 15 minutes before you would normally get up in the morning. The 7 Day Programmable Thermostat is more accommodating to varying schedules, the 5/2 is likely easier to program. But if the house is vacant sometime during each 24 Hour Period, due to people being at Jobs, School, etc., and with proper respect for domestic pets, set the Thermostat to a lower temperature about 15 minutes before the house will be vacant, and to increase to the desired temperature about 15 minutes before someone is to return.

Turning down the temperature too low may cause pipes to freeze in colder homes on very cold days. My house was not insulated, there is Vinyl Siding, covering the original Wood Siding, attached to Studs, there is an Air Gap of a few inches (4″ or so when 2 x 4 are used for Studs), then:

Click on Image for the Full View:

• Lath Board, and Plaster


• Plasterboard (Drywall)

That 4″ or so Gap is where the Pipes are located. In the winter, the outside Temperature influences the Temperature in the Gap, as does the inside Temperature. The house must be kept warm enough so that the Pipes don’t Freeze in the wall. Insulated homes likely decrease the concern of Pipes Freezing. Basement Pipes may be subject to Freezing in older homes and very low Nighttime Thermostat Settings. On Forced Air Furnaces, be sure the Basement Heat Registers (Vents) are open sufficiently to keep the Basement adequately heated. Monitor the conditions in the Basement periodically.

3. Close off the doors to unused rooms. In Unused Rooms:

• With Forced Air Furnaces, reduce the opening of the Heat Registers in those rooms, do not close. Monitor the conditions in the room periodically.

• With Electric Baseboard Heat, set the Room Thermostat to a lower temperature or Off, according to your previous use. Monitor the conditions in the room periodically.

• Hot Water Baseboard Heaters supplied by a Central Heating Systems may be adjustable. Consult manufacturer’s or online instructions.

To Monitor Areas of the House this year, I bought this Thermometer. It measures the Room Temperature/Humidity the Base is in, and comes with 3 Remote Sensors that it also displays the Temperature and Humidity for any room or even one placed Outside (sheltered).

ORIA Indoor Outdoor Thermometer with 3 Wireless Sensors, Digital Hygrometer Thermometer, Temperature Humidity Monitor Meter with LCD Backlight, Wireless Thermometer for Home, Office, Bedroom, White

Remote Thermometer

My Remote Thermometer. Display is Clear. My Photography needs to Improve.

The Top Horizontal Readings (69.8° F and 49% Humidity) is the Measurements from the Display Unit itself, that’s the Temperature/Humidity Near it. The other 3 are the Temperature and Humidity Sent to the Display Unit from small Remote Sensors mounted wherever you care to Monitor.

1 =  Main Bedroom     2 = Small Bedroom     3 = Basement

This Type of a Device can help to monitor Temperatures in the Winter. Of course, you can also just place Thermometers in Each Area you care to Monitor, and visit them periodically, and record the actual information.

4. Dress Warmer while home. Wear a warm hat or cap, wear warm socks. Remember, you’re trying to have affordable heat. Use a Heavy Blanket. We used our dog as a heater, he liked to sleep on the bed, he was 95 lbs, and it made a discernible difference in temperature.

5. To discuss in more detail another time, Kerosene Heaters and Oil Lamps, must be used with Extreme Care. I also have a Candle Lamp (Holds 3 Candles, Can Burn 1, 2, or 3 at the same time). Fire and Carbon Monoxide are concerns with Open Flame Devices. Follow the Manufacturers Instructions and Common Sense.

UCO Candle Lamp

My Candle Lantern Model, Shown Above, creates heat, but it is only a Fraction of the Heat produced by Oil Lamps such as the Following Currently Manufactured Aladdin Oil Lamp.  Images are Not Shown To Scale:

Aladdin Oil Lamp

We use them, but we have Fire Extinguishers in various places around the house, we have multiple Smoke Alarms and 2 Carbon Monoxide Alarms, You SHOULD NOT LEAVE OPEN FLAME LIGHTS UNATTENDED. DO NOT NOT SLEEP WHILE ONE IS IN USE. One of my sons saw a Trailer Burn Down, that he and others were having a party at, when a Decorative Candle was too close to the Ceiling. It ignited the wood underneath the Ceiling Material and the Trailer burned fast. A Narrow Boat YouTube Show had a man that bought a Wall Mounted Oil Lamp for heat. It was too close to the ceiling, and I wrote to:

W.T. Kirkman Lanterns (very knowledgeable)

He advised that it needed to be 18” at a Minimum from the Ceiling. The Narrow Boat Show had it much closer than that. I wrote to the Narrow Boat Show and told him about the concern.

Center or Side Draft Oil Lamps (the Aladdin is a Side Draft) can often be operated in such a way as to not produce an odor. But they can run away, especially shortly after being Lit, and they must be attended. By “run away”, I mean that they may increase in Draft after being Lit, to the Point that Flames come out the Top of the Chimney. You Simply Turn Down the Wick to Lower the Flame. If the Flame is too Low, the Combustion is Incomplete and the Lamps make a Kerosene Smell. I light my Lamps in the House, Work the Flame up over 15 Minutes to the correct height, and when I extinguish them (usually just 1 is lit), I take it outside. This way, no Kerosene Smell in the House is Noted.


6. Electric Heaters. The following Tag is the reason I wrote this blog.

An Electric Heater used Safely in a Bedroom may permit the Furnace Thermostat to be Set Lower than normal at Night while still keeping the Room Warm.  If Multiple Rooms are Involved, Multiple Heaters may cost more to Operate than Running the Furnace at a Reasonable Nighttime Temperature and may Cause Issues with Wiring Overheating if the Rooms are not Individually Wired.

This Tag is on a bathroom portable heater. I used Yandex to Extract the Text from a Photograph of the Tag. It did it almost perfectly. The Text from the Tag is Below the Image of the Heater Itself.

IMG_20221003_184355 2

When we bought this house, we had it rewired. When we inherited our former house, we had it rewired. Older homes can be very deficient in wiring.

The Cautions on this Tag are not Absolute, Different Rules Apply for Different Heaters.

From the DeLonghi HFX65V15L Heater:

DeLonghi HFX65V15L


1) Do not place any objects such as furniture, papers, clothes, and curtains closer than 3 feet (0.9 m) to the front of the heater and keep them away from the sides and rear when the heater is plugged in.

2) Do not place the heater near a bed because objects such as pillows or blankets can fall off the bed and be ignited by the heater.

3) Always unplug heater when not in use.

4) Always plug heaters directly into a wall outlet/receptacle. Never use with an extension cord or relocatable power tap (outlet/power strip).

5) Do not operate heater with a damaged cord or plug or after the heater malfunctions, has been dropped or damaged in any manner. Discard heater or return to an authorized service facility for examination and/or repair.

6) Do not run cord under carpeting. Do not cover cord with throw rugs, runners, or similar coverings. Do not route cord under furniture or appliances. Arrange cord away from traffic area and where it will not be tripped over.

7) Check your heater cord and plug connections.

a: Faulty wall outlet connections or loose plugs can cause the outlet or plug to overheat. Be sure the plug fits tight in the outlet.

b: Heaters draw more current than small appliances, overheating of the outlet may occur even if it has not occurred with the use of other appliances.

c: During use check frequently to determine if your plug outlet or faceplate is HOT!

d: If so, discontinue use of the heater and have a qualified electrician check and/or replace the faulty outlet(s).


We have a Special Dedicated A/C Outlet in both of the Bedrooms in our House. This means a Breaker Feeds a Cable that only goes to One Receptacle, and another Breaker Feeds a Cable that goes to the Other Receptacle. We use the Dedicated A/C Receptacle for a Heater in the Winter Time, the Honeywell HZ-2110/HZ-2110C Heater with 600, 900, and 1500 Watts.

We do use a Heavy Duty Power Strip (Metal Construction, it’s designed for use with Tools in a Shop Setting), despite what the Tag (above) says. We only use the Heater on 600 Watts or 900 Watts, and be sure the Room is Warmed Up and the Heater is Cycling, before falling asleep.

See My Blog below, on Power Strip Failure, when used with High Wattage Devices and from a Failure of the older Non-Fused MOV Style Strips when the MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor, used to Suppress Voltage Spikes and Transients) fails.

Power Strips, Information on Use and Safety

Power Strips, Information on Use and Safety

The Current Used by the Different Wattage Settings are Listed Below:

Power = Voltage x Current

Current = Power ÷ Voltage

600 ÷ 120 = 5 Amps
900 ÷ 120 = 7.5 Amps

If we used it on 1500 Watts, that would be:
1500 ÷ 120 = 12.5 Amps

  • The higher the Current, the more likely that issues will arise.
  • The Longer the Heater Runs before Cycling Off, or if it Cycles-Off for only a Few Seconds, then back On, the more likely issues will arise.

Basically, if the wiring is not in great shape, if the Plug is not a Tight Fit to the Receptacle, if Heater Wire Connections are not Solidly Connected to the Plug Prongs, any Electrical Resistance will result in Heating the Plug, Receptacle, and/or Wiring/Breaker. 

We have Commercial Grade Receptacles throughout the house. This house; and our previous house we had Re-Wired; I bought Commercial Grade Receptacles and had the Electrician Install them as they Re-Wired each Home. Receptacles are less than $1, and Commercial Grade may be $2 to $3 dollars each, and they are worth the investment. They Hold the Plug Tighter, Reducing the Heating that occurs from a Less Firm Grip.

I found what appeared to be a Large Candle Light in the Trash. I brought it home, and it’s a Duraflame MODEL: 10ILH100-01H Heater. 

It has 1000W and 1500 Watts, and NO THERMOSTAT (by design), Apparently you Turn it On when you’re Cold and Off when you’re Warm. It’s Runs with Heat, or the Lights can be Turned-On without Heat, but you can’t set it to Turn-Off or Cycle at a Specific Room Temperature. I DO NOT RECOMMEND THIS HEATER TO ANYONE.

I Disconnected the 1000 Watts Element, (if I remember correctly) only leaving the 500 Watts one intact. That way, it is Less Likely to Cause Trouble if someone Turns the Heat On. We use it for the Light, with the Heat Off. And I can disassemble it and Restore the 1000 Watt Heating Element if Needed. The Unit Does have Protection for Internal Over-Temperature, but I don’t think there is a Tilt Switch.

So, No Thermostat and 1500 Watts. The Original Plug is Still in use, but you can see that, at one time, it was subject to distortion from Heat, and no wonder. Imagine this Heater, Unattended, on 1500 Watts, for an Extended Period of Time.

At work, there was; in the small office I worked from, a shared office space, behind where I sat; a Blackened Receptacle (Seriously Overheated). I’m an Electrician, I should have replaced it, but I didn’t use it. We were not permitted to have Heaters (though an Under the Desk Radiator (flat) type thing was approved, and it was Low Wattage). So, someone was using a Non-Approved Heater, and frankly, I can’t blame them, but they needed to be more careful about its use.

  • See the Warning Tag from my DeLonghi HFX65V15L, and Consult the Specific Warnings for any Electrical Heater you use.
  • Keep the Heaters on the Lower Wattage Settings if Possible.
  • Make sure the Heater is Cycling, if they run on Higher Wattage Settings for Extended Periods of Time, or Only Cycle Off for Seconds, they May Overheat the Plug, Receptacle, Wiring, or even Breaker.
  • When I Turn-Off a Heater, I always Check the Plug Body to see if it’s Warm (or Unusually Warm, as Some “Warmth” will occur if the Heater is Running in Longer Cycles).
  • Unplug the Heater when Not in Use.
  • We use a Heavy Duty Power Strip Made of Metal, and we Turn-Off the Devices Plugged into it, then Turn-off the Power Strip Itself. Ordinarily, you should Plug the Heater Directly into the Wall.
  • When I use a Heater in the Living Room in the Winter, I use a Very Short (5’) Appliance Extension that uses 12 Gauge Wiring and is Intended for High Current Devices. My Heater Cord will not Reach the Receptacle from the area where we need it.

Don’t use the Heater:

  • That is Damaged or isn’t Operating Correctly (on some, the Thermostat Sticks with the Unit On)
  • Has a Damaged Power Cord or Plug
  • Plugged into a Receptacle that has issues
  • If the Plug Fits into Loosely into the Receptacle
  • That is on a Circuit Shared with other Moderate to High Wattage Devices (Including Other Heaters)

Consider having a Qualified Electrician Install a Dedicated Circuit for use with an A/C or Heater in the Room where it’s Needed.